Photo By James Heilman, MD via Wikimedia Commons
Eczema or atopic dermatitis is an uncomfortable skin problem.It is accompanied by dry, scaly, and itchy rashes that can be painful at times, and are susceptible to infection.Two new treatments have been discussed and approved for atopic dermatitis.
Eczema can happen to people of all ages, including babies and young children.Some of these children will live with this skin problem as they grow older, but sometimes it is only in adulthood when one first gets officially diagnosed with the affliction.The American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology discussed the matter at the Annual Scientific Meeting.
"Many adults don't seek out medical care, preferring to self-treat instead, either with home remedies or over-the-counter drugs.Often, they aren't aware they have eczema, and they also don't know treatments have changed a lot in the last few years.There are new drugs and topical medications that can make a huge difference in their quality of life," said Dr.Luz Fonacier, an allergy expert and board member at ACAAI.
People with eczema suffer from itching and discomfort that can cause emotional problems and irregular sleeping habits.The constant itching and scratching from the condition be very embarrassing in public and can disrupt the person's beauty rest, pointing to a poor quality of life.
Crisaborole and dupilumab are the two new medications designed to help people with eczema.
- Crisaborole is a nonsteroidal ointment approved for the treatment of mild to moderate eczema.It reduces itching, redness, and swelling of the skin.The ointment can be used by patients with ages 2 and older.
- Dupilumab is a biologic therapy delivered through an injection.It is used to treat moderate to severe eczema that did not respond to ointments.The patient must be at least 18 years old to use this medication.
"In the last few years, we've seen the introduction of targeted therapies, also known as precision medicine.The takeaway message is that there are effective medications available that help relieve eczema symptoms and now can also target the underlying cause," Dr.Mark Boguniewicz at ACAAI.
Atopic Dermatitis or Eczema
Children usually get AD during the first years of their lives and the usual clinical presentation is the appearance of dry and scaly patches on their skin.It can appear on their scalp, forehead, and face, particularly the cheeks.These patches are itchy, forcing them to scratch it or rub the affected area on any surface among babies.Itchiness can prevent a person from sleeping, especially when it is intense while scratching the patches can lead to skin infection.
About 10 to 20 percent of children around the globe have AD, while one to three percent of adults have the condition.All races can be affected by eczema.AD starts before the person has their fifth birthday, about 90 percent of cases, and rarely starts during adulthood.
In a study published at the National Institutes of Health, the prevalence range of AD symptoms in Iran is less than two percent, while it is 16 percent in Japan and Sweden in children aged 6 to 7.Prevalence range in Albania is less than one percent while it is over than 17 percent in Nigeria among children aged 13 to 14.
Dermatologists have associated the development of AD with the following risk factors:
- A family history of AD, asthma or hay fever.If both parents have AD, the chance of the child getting the condition is greater.
- Living in areas with a cold climate and higher levels of pollution increases the chance to get AD.
- People living in higher social classes are more likely to develop the condition.
- Age of the mother when the baby was born.If the baby was born beyond the childbearing years, from 20 to 45 years of age, the greater the chance of the baby getting AD.
Eating certain foods do not cause AD; however, some research suggested that allergies from food can worsen eczema.Food products, such as milk, nut, and shellfish, often contain compounds that trigger allergies in children.Up to 66.67 percent of children and young people with AD also have a food allergy.
Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis
There is no cure for the skin condition.Treatment options available today can help you control the problem.The treatments reduce the symptoms like the itchiness and pain.They can also prevent infections, stop the skin thickening, and calm the skin.
1.Over-the-counter products such as skin moisturizers help reduce redness and itchiness.
2.Soaking in a warm bath or taking a warm shower and then moisturizing your body afterward can calm your skin.For the bath, you can add salt, oatmeal or baking soda to relieve the symptoms.
3.Topical medications, such as corticosteroids, help ease the symptoms of the affected area.
4.Light therapy can be used to increase the production of vitamin D in your skin.It also reduces the effects of itching and inflammation.
5.Biologic drugs contain engineered proteins that target specific parts of the immune system responsible for triggering inflammation.